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Los sentidos del olfato y del gusto - Sinus Surgery Center
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logo-sinus-center

SINUS SURGERY CENTER

A Leading Global Resource on the Science of Sinus Disease

En el American British Cowdray Medical Center
Torre de Consultorios, Cons. 310
Av. Carlos Graeff Fernández n°154, Col. Tlaxcala
Santa Fe, Del.Cuajimalpa C.P. 05300, México D.F.
Tels. 16647018 - 19 - 22

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scientific publication

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Los sentidos del olfato y del gusto

son quimiosentidos y pertenecen al sistema químico sensorial.
Los procesos del olfato y del gusto son complejos. Éstos empiezan cuandose liberan moléculas por medio de sustancias que estimulan las células sensoriales en la nariz, la boca o la garganta.
- Las células nerviosas olfativas son estimuladas por los olores. Estas células se encuentran en el tejido localizado en la parte superior e interna de la nariz y están conectadas directamente con el cerebro.
- Las células nerviosas gustativas son estimuladas por el sabor de los alimentos y bebidas. Estas células están localizadas en la papillas gustativas de la boca y la garganta.
Estas células sensoriales transmiten mensajes al cerebro a través de los nervios, donde se identifican olores y sabores específicos.
Otro proceso quimiosensorial, llamado sentido químico común, también contribuye al gusto y al olfato. Estas células alertan al cerebro de sensaciones tales como el calor (como el de los pimientos) o frío (como el mentol).

¿Cómo interactúan el gusto y el olfato?

Los irritantes del gusto, olfato y quimiosensoriales se perciben a menudo como mezclas en alimentos o bebidas. Un ejemplo común es la sensación de ardor que se experimenta al comer alimentos muy condimentados. En este caso, el nervio trigémino lleva información sensorial sobre la irritación quimiosensorial detectada en boca y garganta, mientras que otros nervios llevan información sobre sabores y olores detectados en otras partes de la boca y la nariz. Todas estas sensaciones se combinan en el cerebro para producir lo que se conoce erróneamente como el "sabor" de un alimento en particular. De hecho, las sensaciones combinadas forman el "sabor" que incluye no únicamente sabores, también olores junto con la irritación quimiosensorial. Naturalmente, la interacción de sabor, olfato e irritación quimiosensorial es un tema de interés para investigación en el Centro.
El funcionamiento normal del olfato y el gusto juega un papel vital en la nutrición así como en la selección de los alimentos, por ello es importante en el mantenimiento de una adecuada calidad de vida de las personas. El olfato y el gusto están inter-relacionados muy cercanamente.
Una disminución de la función de un sentido, a menudo afecta la función del otro sentido. De hecho, las quejas de pérdida de gusto generalmente reflejan una disfunción olfativa más que gustativa. Las carencias en estos sentidos no solamente reducen el placer y gusto de los alimentos, sino también pueden llevar a envenenamiento por alimentos o a una sobre-exposición a agentes dañinos ambientalmente que de otro modo podrían detectarse por el olfato y gusto.
Los investigadores en el Centro están explorando los factores que influyen en cómo los individuos perciben y responden a los irritantes quimiosensoriales, y cómo interactúan los distintos irritantes.
La irritación quimiosensorial es la detección de irritantes químicos en la boca y nariz, o en la piel misma. Este sistema es anatómicamente independiente de los sentidos del gusto y del olfato.
La detección de la irritación quimiosensorial puede también servir como una señal de alerta para la detección de estímulos potencialmente dañinos.
Sin embargo, las sensaciones de irritación –como cáusticas, calor, enfriamiento, picor, etc.– son en algunas ocasiones consideradas deseables como características de la percepción de ciertos alimentos, bebidas, y productos medicinales.
Ciertos proyectos de investigación que se llevan a cabo en nuestro Centro están expandiendo el conocimiento de las sensaciones quimiosensoriales y de las percepciones olfativas y gustativas.
Éstos incluyen:
- Identificación de "bloqueadores" de sabores, olores e irritantes específicos, como sabores amargos, olores de alimentos o irritantes dolorosos.
- El estudio de las interacciones entre el gusto, olfato e irritación quimiosensitiva.
- El papel que juega la edad, el sexo, las experiencias dietéticas y la carga genética en el desarrollo de las preferencias de olores y de la sensibilidad gustativa y olfatoria.
- La influencia de factores cognoscitivos en nuestras respuestas a olores e irritantes.
- Investigación de las relaciones entre olores, memoria y emociones.
- Análisis de cualidades individuales gustativas que interactuán en el incremento o supresión de la percepción gustativa u olfatoria.
- La relación entre sensaciones de amargo y dulce y de ingerencia de alcohol.
- Identificación de diferencias individuales en la percepción de los distintos componentes amargos.
- El papel que juega la edad y el sexo en la preferencia por varias
concentraciones de carbonato en las bebidas.

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